Generic risk warning and disclaimer

 

Investment involves risk. As a general rule, you should only trade in financial products that you are familiar with and understand the risk associated with them. The risk warning described in each financial product below is not exhaustive, you should carefully consider your investment experience, financial situation, investment objective, risk tolerance level and consult your independent financial adviser as to the suitability of your situation prior making any investment.

 

 

 

Shares

 

Risk of Securities Trading

The prices of securities fluctuate, sometimes dramatically. The price of a security may move up or down, and may become valueless. It is as likely that losses will be incurred rather than profit made as a result of buying and selling securities.

 

Risk of Margin Trading

The risk of loss in financing a transaction by deposit of collateral is significant. You may sustain losses in excess of your cash and any other assets deposited as collateral with the licensed or registered person. Market conditions may make it impossible to execute contingent orders, such as stop-loss or stop-limit orders. You may be called upon at short notice to make additional margin deposits or interest payments. If the required margin deposits or interest payments are not made within the prescribed time, your collateral may be liquidated without your consent. Moreover, you will remain liable for any resulting deficit in your account and interest charged on your account. You should therefore carefully consider whether such a financing arrangement is suitable in light of your own financial position and investment objectives.

 

Risk of providing an authority to repledge your securities collateral

There is risk if you provide the licensed or registered person with an authority that allows it to apply your securities or securities collateral pursuant to a securities borrowing and lending agreement, repledge your securities collateral for financial accommodation or deposit your securities collateral as collateral for the discharge and satisfaction of its settlement obligations and liabilities.

 

If your securities or securities collateral are received or held by the licensed or registered person in Hong Kong, the above arrangement is allowed only if you consent in writing. Moreover, unless you are a professional investor, your authority must specify the period for which it is current and be limited to not more than 12 months. If you are a professional investor, these restrictions do not apply.

 

Additionally, your authority may be deemed to be renewed (i.e. without your written consent) if the licensed or registered person issues you a reminder at least 14 days prior to the expiry of the authority, and you do not object to such deemed renewal before the expiry date of your then existing authority.

 

You are not required by any law to sign these authorities. But an authority may be required by licensed or registered persons, for example, to facilitate margin lending to you or to allow your securities or securities collateral to be lent to or deposited as collateral with third parties. The licensed or registered person should explain to you the purposes for which one of these authorities is to be used.

 

If you sign one of these authorities and your securities or securities collateral are lent to or deposited with third parties, those third parties will have a lien or charge on your securities or securities collateral. Although the licensed or registered person is responsible to you for securities or securities collateral lent or deposited under your authority, a default by it could result in the loss of your securities or securities collateral.

 

A cash account not involving securities borrowing and lending is available from most licensed or registered persons. If you do not require margin facilities or do not wish your securities or securities collateral to be lent or pledged, do not sign the above authorities and ask to open this type of cash account.

 

Risk of trading Growth Enterprise Market stocks

Growth Enterprise Market (GEM) stocks involve a high investment risk. In particular, companies may list on GEM with neither a track record of profitability nor any obligation to forecast future profitability. GEM stocks may be very volatile and illiquid. You should make the decision to invest only after due and careful consideration. The greater risk profile and other characteristics of GEM mean that it is a market more suited to professional and other sophisticated investors. Current information on GEM stocks may only be found on the internet website operated by The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited. GEM Companies are usually not required to issue paid announcements in gazetted newspapers. You should seek independent professional advice if you are uncertain of or have not understood any aspect of this risk disclosure statement or the nature and risks involved in trading of GEM stocks.

 

Risk of trading Nasdaq-Amex securities at The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited

The securities under the Nasdaq-Amex Pilot Program (PP) are aimed at sophisticated investors. You should consult the licensed or registered person and become familiarised with the PP before trading in the PP securities. You should be aware that the PP securities are not regulated as a primary or secondary listing on the Main Board or the Growth Enterprise Market of The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited.

 

 

 

HK Shares IPO

 

Risk associated with HK Shares IPO

The allotment basis is unknown at the time of subscription. In case of the shares are heavily over subscription, you may only be allotted part of the shares or even no shares at all. On the other hand, if the IPO turns out to be not as popular as it is anticipated to be, then you may get more shares than you would expect.

When you subscribe IPO shares through IPO financing, additional financing costs will be incurred even though no shares being allotted.

IPO shares price will not necessarily rise above the offer price on the first day of trading. Performance of new shares will also be affected by the overall market sentiment and it is possible for the share price to drop below the offer price.

The potential profits derived from an IPO investment may not offset the transaction costs and interest expense incurred if subscribe on margin. You will incur a loss if allotted shares are unable to sell above the offer price anticipated.

 

 

 

Warrants

 

Specific risk of Warrants

Issuer Default Risk

In the event that a warrant issuer becomes insolvent and defaults on their listed securities, you will be considered as unsecured creditors and will have no preferential claims to any assets held by the issuer. You should therefore pay close attention to the financial strength and credit worthiness of warrant issuers. 

 

Product Risk     

Warrants are issued over underlying securities, baskets of securities, an underlying index or a currency. The value of warrants will depend on a range of factors, such as exercise price, the price of the underlying securities or the level of the underlying index, the volatility of the underlying securities or the underlying index, the time remaining to the expiry date, interest rate, dividends and other factors. Thus, you should be familiar with mechanics of warrants before purchasing the same.

 

Gearing Risk

Warrants are traded by way of leverage and can change in value rapidly according to the gearing ratio relative to the underlying assets. You should be aware that the value of a warrant may fall to zero resulting in a total loss of the initial investment.

 

Expiry Considerations

Warrants have a limited life span. The value of warrants erodes as the warrant nears its expiry. On expiry, warrant cannot be traded or exercised and it is possible that it may become worthless. You may lose the whole invested amount together as well as the associated trading cost (if any). Therefore, you should be aware of the expiry time horizon and choose a product with an appropriate lifespan for their trading strategy.

 

Foreign Exchange Risk

Trading warrants with underlying assets not denominated in Hong Kong dollars are also exposed to exchange rate risk. Currency rate fluctuations can adversely affect the underlying asset value, also affecting the structured product price.

 

Specific Risk of Trading Derivative Warrants

Time decay risk

All things being equal, the value of a derivative warrant will decay over time as it approaches its expiry date. Derivative warrants should therefore not be viewed as long term investments.

 

Volatility risk

Prices of derivative warrants can increase or decrease in line with the implied volatility of underlying asset price. You should be aware of the underlying asset volatility.

 

Specific Risk of Trading Callable Bull/Bear Contracts (“CBBC”)
Mandatory call risk

You trading CBBCs should be aware of their intraday knockoutor mandatory call feature. A CBBC will cease trading when the underlying asset value equals the mandatory call price/ level as stated in the listing documents. You will only be entitled to the residual value of the terminated CBBC as calculated by the product issuer in accordance with the listing documents. You should also note that the residual value can be zero.

 

Funding costs

The issue price of a CBBC includes funding costs. Funding costs are gradually reduced over time as the CBBC moves towards expiry. The longer the duration of the CBBC, the higher the total funding costs. In the event that a CBBC is called, you will lose the funding costs for the entire lifespan of the CBBC. The formula for calculating the funding costs are stated in the listing documents. 

 

 

 

Structured products

 

Risks Associated with Structured Products

Issuer Default Risk

In the event that a structured product issuer becomes insolvent and defaults on their listed securities, you will be considered as unsecured creditors and will have no preferential claims to any assets held by the issuer. You should therefore pay close attention to the financial strength and credit worthiness of structured product issuers. 

 

Uncollateralised Product Risk      

Uncollateralised structured products are not asset backed. In the event of issuer bankruptcy, you can lose their entire investment. You should read the listing documents to determine if a product is uncollateralised.

 

Gearing Risk

Structured products such as derivative warrants and callable bull/bear contracts (CBBCs) are leveraged and can change in value rapidly according to the gearing ratio relative to the underlying assets. You should be aware that the value of a structured product may fall to zero resulting in a total loss of the initial investment.

 

Expiry Considerations

Structured products have an expiry date after which the issue may become worthless. You should be aware of the expiry time horizon and choose a product with an appropriate lifespan for their trading strategy.

 

Extraordinary Price Movements

The price of a structured product may not match its theoretical price due to outside influences such as market supply and demand factors. As a result, actual traded prices can be higher or lower than the theoretical price.

 

Foreign Exchange Risk

You trading structured products with underlying assets not denominated in Hong Kong dollars are also exposed to exchange rate risk. Currency rate fluctuations can adversely affect the underlying asset value, also affecting the structured product price.

 

Liquidity Risk

The Exchange requires all structured product issuers to appoint a liquidity provider for each individual issue. The role of liquidity providers is to provide two way quotes to facilitate trading of their products. In the event that a liquidity provider defaults or ceases to fulfill its role, you may not be able to buy or sell the product until a new liquidity provider has been assigned.

 

Specific Risk of Trading Accumulators

Knock-out

When the market price of the underlying asset is at or above the knock-out price, the accumulator contract will terminate (i.e. the investor will cease to accumulate any further underlying asset from the knock-out date). your potential profit therefore is capped by the knock-out feature.

 

Potential losses are magnified and can be very substantial

You may suffer substantial loss as they are bound by the accumulator contract to take up periodically (e.g. daily) the agreed amount of the underlying asset (at the strike price) when the market price falls below the strike price. You are required to take up twice or multiple times of the agreed amount of the underlying asset when the market turns against them and the investor’s maximum exposure after fully taking into account the multiplier condition.

 

Early Termination

You have to aware that they may not be able to early terminate the accumulator contracts, and even if the request for early termination is accepted, you would likely need to bear unexpectedly high exit costs and losses. 

 

Contract tenor

Accumulator contracts with a longer tenor will be associated with higher risks and usually higher costs of early termination. 

 

Specific Risk when investing in ELI

ELIs are not principal protected. You may suffer a loss if the prices of the reference asset(s) of an ELI go against your view. In extreme cases, you could lose your entire investment. 

The potential gain on your ELI may be capped at a predetermined level specified by the issuer. 

When you purchase an ELI, you rely on the credit-worthiness of the issuer. In case of default or insolvency of the issuer, you will have to rely on your distributor to take action on your behalf to claim as an unsecured creditor of the issuer regardless of the performance of the reference asset(s). 

ELIs are not secured on any assets or collateral.  

Issuers may only provide limited market making arrangement for their ELIs. However, if you try to terminate an ELI before maturity under the market making arrangement provided by the issuer, you may receive an amount which is substantially less than your original investment amount.  

Investing in an ELI is not the same as investing in the reference asset(s). During the investment period, you have no rights in the reference asset(s). Changes in the market price(s) of such reference asset(s) may not lead to a corresponding change in the market value and/or potential payout of the ELI.  

If an unforeseeable event occurs in relation to an ELI, the issuer may, at its sole and absolute discretion, adjust the terms of the ELI to account for that event. If no adjustment is able to preserve the economic equivalence of the ELI, the product may be early terminated by paying you a fair market value as the issuer may determine. Such early termination amount may be substantially less than your original investment amount. 

 

 

 

Mutual Fund

 

Market Risk

Investment in mutual fund is subject to general market risks, whose value may fluctuate due to various factors, such as changes in government policies, economic condition or interest rates.

 

Liquidity Risk

Tying up investments in products which are hard to liquidate, or carry heavy costs for liquidation, can prove a burden. The value of your mutual fund may significantly decline if the underlying investment drop rapidly in a violate market and cannot be sold.

 

Foreign Exchange Risk

The investment returns of your mutual fund may be subject to foreign exchange risks as some of the underlying funds may be denominated in a another currency different from your own currency.

 

Credit Risk

The possibility that companies or other issuers whose bonds are owned by the fund may fail to pay their debts (including the debt owed to holders of their bonds).

 

Concentration Risk

Funds which are concentrated its investment in certain markets or companies (e.g. emerging, commodity markets and smaller companies, etc.) may also involve a higher degree of risk and are usually more sensitive to price movements.

 

 

 

Bonds

 

Specific risk of Bonds

Bond investment is NOT equivalent to a time deposit. It is NOT protected under the Hong Kong Deposit Protection Scheme. Do not invest in bond unless you fully understand and are willing to assume the risks associated with it. Please seek independent advice if you are unsure.

 

Issuer Risk

Bond is subject to both the actual and perceived measures of credit worthiness of the issuer. There is no assurance of protection against a default by the issuer in respect of payment or repayment obligations. You might not be able to recover the principal and any coupon if the issuer defaults on bond. Different bonds represent and comprise different obligations on the part of the issuer, for example the obligations may be direct, unsubordinated, subordinated, unsecured or secured obligations of the relevant issuer. Holders of a certain type or class of bonds may bear higher risks than holders of other types of bonds or securities if their bond has a lower priority of claim in the event of the issuer’s default or insolvency or liquidation. You should therefore apprise yourself of the nature of the obligations of a particular bond issue and what claim priority exists in the event of the default or insolvency or liquidation of the issuer.

 

Risk of Change in Credit Rating

Some bonds are rated as ‘investment grade’ or ‘non-investment grade’ by independent credit rating agencies. Such credit ratings may change or cease during the lifetime of a bond. You must continuously apprise yourself of credit rating information and status to ensure that the bond, in which you have invested, remains suitable for you. You are encouraged to contact your Investment Consultant for assistance if necessary.

 

Liquidity Risk

Bonds are mainly for medium to long term investment, and are not for short term speculation. You should be prepared to invest your funds in bonds for the full investment tenor; you could lose part or all of your investment if you choose to sell your bonds prior to maturity.

The secondary market for bonds may not provide significant liquidity or may trade at prices based on the prevailing market conditions and may not be in line with the expectations of the bondholders.

 

Credit Risk

The issuer is responsible for payment of interest and repayment of principal of bonds. If the issuer defaults, the holder of bonds may not be able to receive interest and get back the principal. The holder of bonds bears the credit risk of the issuer.

 

Market Risk

Indicative bond prices are available and bond prices do fluctuate when market changes. Factors affecting market price of bonds include, and are not limited to, fluctuations in interest rates, credit spreads, and liquidity premiums. The fluctuation in yield generally has a greater effect on prices of longer tenor bonds. There is an inherent risk that losses may be incurred rather than profits made as a result of buying and selling bonds.

 

Interest Rate Risk

When the interest rate rises, the price of a fixed rate bond will normally drop, and vice versa. If you want to sell your bond before it matures, you may get less than your purchase price.

 

Non-Investment Grade Bonds or Unrated Bonds Risk

For the non-investment grade bonds or unrated bonds, the credit risk is higher. The bond is subject to a higher risk and higher chance to default. During economic downturns, non-investment grade bonds or unrated bonds may be more vulnerable to the impact of price fluctuations. Due to (i) investors become more risk adverse; and (ii) default risk of the bond rises; as a result, the bond price may drop more than the bond price of investment grade.

 

Exchange rate risk

There may be exchange rate risks if you choose to convert payments made on the bonds to a different currency from its denominated currency.

 

Renminbi Risk

Renminbi (RMB) is subject to foreign exchange control. Exchange control imposed by the relevant authorities may adversely affect the applicable exchange rate. Should the central government tighten the control, the liquidity of RMB or even RMB bonds in Hong Kong will be affected and you may be exposed to higher liquidity risk. You should be prepared to invest your funds in bonds for the full investment tenor.

 

Reinvestment Risk

If you cannot reinvest the future interest incomes generated from a bond at the prevailing interest rate when the bond was initially purchased, the rate of the return (yield-to-maturity) of the bond will be affected.

 

Call Risk

If you hold a callable bond, when the interest rate goes down, the issuer may redeem the bond before maturity. If this happens and you have to re-invest the proceeds, the yields on other bonds in the market will generally be less favourable.

 

Perpetual Bond Risk

Perpetual bonds do not have a maturity date, and the coupon payments may be deferred or even suspended subject to the terms and conditions of the issue. Perpetual bonds are often callable and / or subordinated, you should pay attention to the reinvestment risk, and / or a lower priority of claims (e.g. on liquidation of the issuer).

 

Other Risks

In general, bond transactions involve various risks including credit and settlement risks. Issuers, market-makers or other relevant parties may fail to perform obligations when due. The investment decision relating to the Bond is yours but you should not invest in the product unless you are satisfied that it is suitable for you having considered it carefully and in the context of your overall financial situation, investment experience and objectives, and risk appetite. You should assure yourself that you understand the nature and risks of bond, and that you have sufficient net worth to be able to assume the risks and bear the potential losses that are associated with it.

 

 

 

Shanghai – Hong Kong Stock Connect

 

Specific Risk associated with Shanghai – Hong Kong Stock Connect

Not protected by Investor Compensation Fund

Stock trading under Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect will not be covered by Hong Kong's Investor Compensation Fund.

 

Quota

Trading under Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect will, initially, be subject to a maximum cross-boundary investment quota (i.e., Aggregate Quota), together with a Daily Quota. You should be noted that the corresponding buy orders will be suspended on the next trading day (sell orders will still be accepted) until the aggregate quota balance returns to the daily quota level.

 

Difference in trading day

Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect will only operate on days when both markets are open for trading and when banks in both markets are open on the corresponding settlement days. So it is possible that there are occasions when it is a normal trading day for the Mainland market but you cannot carry out any A share trading. You should take note of the days Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect is open for business and decide according to their own risk tolerance capability whether or not to take on the risk of price fluctuations in A shares during the time when Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect is not trading.

 

Restrictions on selling imposed by front-end monitoring

If you usually keep your A-shares outside of your brokers, if you want to sell certain A shares you hold, you must transfer those A shares to the respective accounts of your brokers before the market opens on the day of selling (T day). If you fail to meet this deadline, you will not be able to sell those A shares on T day.

 

The recalling of eligible stocks

When a stock is recalled from the scope of eligible stocks for trading via Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the stock can only be sold but restricted from being bought. This may affect your investment portfolio or strategies. You should therefore pay close attention to the list of eligible stocks as provided and renewed from time to time by SSE and SEHK.

 

Trade suspension mechanism for Mainland A-shares

According to the Rules of the Shanghai Stock Exchange on the Real-time Monitoring of Unusual Securities Transactions《上海證券交易所證券異常交易實時監控細則》as promulgated by the SSE, trading may be suspended temporarily during a trading day to suit market needs.

 

Market volatility risk

As an emerging market, mainland China has a higher market volatility compared to other developed markets.

 

Macro-economic Risk

The economic slowdown of mainland China in recent years has raised the concern about its growth outlook, and the potential circumstances is sometimes described as hard landing”.

 

Liquidity Risk

AThe A-Share market is dominated by retail investors, whose participation rate is up to 81%. As the market is not fully open to all investors, it is sensitive to the changes in policies and liquidity in China. Some investors will gauge the risks caused by potential changes in liquidity and policies with the Shanghai Interbank Offered Rate (SHIBOR), sovereign bond yields and the open market operations of the People’s Bank of China.

 

Currency risk in RMB

You will be exposed to currency risk if conversion of the local currency into RMB is required. RMB is subject to exchange rate risk. Fluctuation in the exchange rate of RMB may result in losses in the event that you subsequently convert RMB into another currency (including Hong Kong Dollars). Exchange controls imposed by the relevant authorities may also adversely affect the applicable exchange rate. RMB is currently not freely convertible and conversion of RMB may be subject to certain policy, regulatory requirements and/or restrictions (which are subject to changes from time to time without notice). The actual conversion arrangement will depend on the policy, regulatory requirements and/or restrictions prevailing at the relevant time.

 

 

 

Futures and Options

 

Risk of trading Futures and Options

The risk of loss in trading futures contracts or options is substantial. In some circumstances, you may sustain losses in excess of your initial margin funds. Placing contingent orders, such as stop-loss or stop-limit orders, will not necessarily avoid loss. Market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. You may be called upon at short notice to deposit additional margin funds. If the required funds are not provided within the prescribed time, your position may be liquidated. You will remain liable for any resulting deficit in your account. Trading in futures and options is not suitable for many members of the public, You should therefore study and understand futures contracts and options before you trade and carefully consider whether such trading is suitable in the light of your investment experience, own financial position and investment objectives. If you trade options you should inform yourself of exercise and expiration procedures and your rights and obligations upon exercise or expiry.

 

Effect of Leverage or Gearing

Transactions in futures carry a high degree of risk. The amount of initial margin is small relative to the value of the futures contract so that transactions are leveraged or geared. A relatively small market movement will have a proportionately larger impact on the funds you have deposited or will have to deposit: this may work against you as well as for you. You may sustain a total loss of initial margin funds and any additional funds deposited with the firm to maintain your position. If the market moves against your position or margin levels are increased, you may be called upon to pay substantial additional funds on short notice to maintain your position. If you fail to comply with a request for additional funds within the time prescribed, your position may be liquidated at a loss and you will be liable for any resulting deficit.

 

Risk-reducing Orders or Strategies

The placing of certain orders (e.g. stop-loss orders, or stop-limit orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amounts may not be effective because market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. Strategies using combinations of positions, such as spread and straddle positions may be as risky as taking simple long or short positions.

 

Options - Variable Degree of Risk

Transactions in options carry a high degree of risk. Purchasers and sellers of options should familiarise themselves with the type of option (i.e. put or call) which they contemplate trading and the associated risks. You should calculate the extent to which the value of the options must increase for your position to become profitable, taking into account the premium and all transaction costs.

The purchaser of options may offset or exercise the options or allow the options to expire. The exercise of an option results either in a cash settlement or in the purchaser acquiring or delivering the underlying interest. If the option is on a futures contract, the purchaser will acquire a futures position with associated liabilities for margin. If the purchased options expire worthless, you will suffer a total loss of your investment which will consist of the option premium plus transaction costs. If you are contemplating purchasing deep-out-of-the-money options, you should be aware that the chance of such options becoming profitable ordinarily is remote.

Selling (writing or granting) an option generally entails considerably greater risk than purchasing options. Although the premium received by the seller is fixed, the seller may sustain a loss well in excess of that amount. The seller will be liable for additional margin to maintain the position if the market moves unfavorably. The seller will also be exposed to the risk of the purchaser exercising the option and the seller will be obligated to either settle the option in cash or to acquire or deliver the underlying interest. If the option is on a futures contract, the seller will acquire a position in a futures contract with associated liabilities for margin. If the option is covered by the seller holding a corresponding position in the underlying interest or a futures contract or another option, the risk may be reduced. If the option is not covered, the risk of loss can be unlimited.

Certain exchanges in some jurisdictions permit deferred payment of the option premium, exposing the purchaser to liability for margin payments not exceeding the amount of the premium. The purchaser is still subject to the risk of losing the premium and transaction costs. When the option is exercised or expires, the purchaser is responsible for any unpaid premium outstanding at that time.

 

Terms and Conditions of Contracts

You should ask the firm with which you deal about the terms and conditions of the specific futures or options which you are trading and associated obligations (e.g. the circumstances under which you may become obliged to make or take delivery of the underlying interest of a futures contract and, in respect of options, expiration dates and restrictions on the time for exercise). Under certain circumstances the specifications of outstanding contracts (including the exercise price of an option) may be modified by the exchange or clearing house to reflect changes in the underlying interest.

 

Suspension or Restriction of Trading and Pricing Relationships

Market conditions (e.g. illiquidity) and/or the operation of the rules of certain markets (e.g. the suspension of trading in any contract or contract month because of price limits or circuit breakers) may increase the risk of loss by making it difficult or impossible to effect transactions or liquidate/offset positions. If you have sold options, this may increase the risk of loss.

Further, normal pricing relationships between the underlying interest and the futures, and the underlying interest and the option may not exist. This can occur when, for example, the futures contract underlying the option is subject to price limits while the option is not. The absence of an underlying reference price may make it difficult to judge fair value.

 

Deposited Cash and Property

You should familiarise yourself with the protections given to money or other property you deposit for domestic and foreign transactions, particularly in the event of a firm insolvency or bankruptcy. The extent to which you may recover your money or property may be governed by specific legislation or local rules. In some jurisdictions, property which had been specifically identifiable as your own will be pro-rated in the same manner as cash for purposes of distribution in the event of a shortfall.

 

Commission and Other Charges

Before you begin to trade, you should obtain a clear explanation of all commission, fees and other charges for which you will be liable. These charges will affect your net profit (if any) or increase your loss.

 

Transactions in Other Jurisdictions

Transactions on markets in other jurisdictions, including markets formally linked to a domestic market, may expose you to additional risk. Such markets may be subject to regulation which may offer different or diminished investor protection. Before you trade you should enquire about any rules relevant to your particular transactions. Your local regulatory authority will be unable to compel the enforcement of the rules of regulatory authorities or markets in other jurisdictions where your transactions have been effected. You should ask the firm with which you deal for details about the types of redress available in both your home jurisdiction and other relevant jurisdictions before you start to trade.

 

Trading Facilities

Electronic trading facilities are supported by computer-based component systems for the order-routing, execution, matching, registration or clearing of trades. As with all facilities and systems, they are vulnerable to temporary disruption or failure. Your ability to recover certain losses may be subject to limits on liability imposed by the system provider, the market, the clearing house and/or participant firms. Such limits may vary: you should ask the firm with which you deal for details in this respect.

 

Off-exchange Transactions

In some jurisdictions, and only then in restricted circumstances, firms are permitted to effect off-exchange transactions. The firm with which you deal may be acting as your counterparty to the transaction. It may be difficult or impossible to liquidate an existing position, to assess the value, to determine a fair price or to assess the exposure to risk. For these reasons, these transactions may involve increased risks. Off-exchange transactions may be less regulated or subject to a separate regulatory regime. Before you undertake such transactions, you should familiarise yourself with applicable rules and attendant risks.

 

 

 

Foreign Exchange

 

The risk of loss in leveraged foreign exchange trading can be substantial. You may sustain losses in excess of your initial margin funds. Placing contingent orders, such as stop-loss or stop-limit orders, will not necessarily limit losses to the intended amounts. Market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. You may be called upon at short notice to deposit additional margin funds. If the required funds are not provided within the prescribed time, your position may be liquidated and you will remain liable for any resulting deficit in your account. You should therefore carefully consider whether such trading is suitable in light of your own financial position and investment objectives.

 

 

 

Investment-linked assurance schemes (ILAS)

 

Risk associated with ILAS

Your investment is subject to the credit and insolvency risks of the insurance company. Your policy’s return is not guaranteed but contingent on the performance of the underlying/reference funds. As such, there is a risk of capital loss.

The investment options available for selection have different risk profiles. Some may be of high risks.

The return on investments under ILAS shall be subject to charges of ILAS and may be lower than directly invest in the particular underlying instrument.

Early surrender or withdrawal of the policy, or suspension of or reduction in premium may result in a significant loss of principal and/or bonuses awarded. Poor performance of underlying investments may further magnify investment losses while all charges are still deductible.

While no premium contributions are required to be made during an applicable premium holiday period, your ILAS’s value may still decline as fees and charges would normally remain deductible. Your entitlements to bonuses may also be affected.

Foreign exchange risk is an additional risk, if your policy or some of the underlying/reference funds are denominated in different currencies.

For ILAS with minimum policy value requirements, your policy may terminate if the policy value falls below a minimum amount.

 

 

 

MPF

 

Investors have to consider before making MPF choice

You should note the investment value of constituent fund could go up and down; past performance is no guide to future performance of the funds. The value of investments and the income from them can fluctuate and is not guaranteed. A fund with higher risk tends to show greater volatility of return than a low risk fund. It also has the potential to offer higher expected return than a low risk fund. Its downside potential is increased similarly. You are advised to seek independent financial adviser before choosing a portfolio that is suitable in light of your investment experience, financial situation and risk tolerance level.

 

 

 

Bullion

 

Risk of trading Bullion

Bullion (that is including gold, silver and other precious metals) is not a regulated product under the local financial regulars, such as Securities and Futures Commission, hence it is a high risk product. The risk of loss in bullion is substantial. In some circumstances, you may sustain losses in excess of your initial margin funds. Placing contingent orders, such as stop-loss or stop-limit orders, will not necessarily avoid loss. Market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. You may be called upon at short notice to deposit additional margin funds. If the required funds are not provided within the prescribed time, your position may be liquidated. You will remain liable for any resulting deficit in your account. Trading in bullion is not suitable for many members of the public, you should therefore study and understand bullion before you trade and carefully consider whether such trading is suitable in the light of your investment experience, own financial position and investment objectives.

 

Effect of Leverage or Gearing

Transactions in bullion carry a high degree of risk. The amount of initial margin is small relative to the value of the bullion so that transactions are leveraged or Gearing. A relatively small market movement will have a proportionately larger impact on the funds you have deposited or will have to deposit: this may work against you as well as for you. You may sustain a total loss of initial margin funds and any additional funds deposited with the firm to maintain your position. If the market moves against your position or margin levels are increased, you may be called upon to pay substantial additional funds on short notice to maintain your position. If you fail to comply with a request for additional funds within the time prescribed, your position may be liquidated at a loss and you will be liable for any resulting deficit.

 

Risk-reducing Orders or Strategies

The placing of certain orders (e.g. stop-loss orders, or stop-limit orders) which are intended to limit losses to certain amounts may not be effective because market conditions may make it impossible to execute such orders. Strategies using combinations of positions, such as spread and straddle positions may be as risky as taking simple long or short positions.

 

 

 

Others

 

Risks of client assets received or held outside Hong Kong

Client assets received or held by the licensed or registered person outside Hong Kong are subject to the applicable laws and regulations of the relevant overseas jurisdiction which may be different from the Securities and Futures Ordinance (Cap.571) and the rules made thereunder. Consequently, such client assets may not enjoy the same protection as that conferred on client assets received or held in Hong Kong.

 

Currency risk

The profit or loss in transactions in foreign currency-denominated contracts (whether they are traded in your own or another jurisdiction) will be affected by fluctuations in currency rates where there is a need to convert from the currency denomination of the contract to another currency.

 

Risk of using electronic trading service

Trading on an electronic trading system may differ from trading on other electronic trading systems. If you undertake transactions on an electronic trading system, you will be exposed to risks associated with the system including the failure of hardware and software. The result of any system failure may be that your order is either not executed according to your instructions or is not executed at all.